The Government of India Resolution of 1913 OR Gokhale’s Bill
The major clauses of Gokhale’s Bill of 1911 –
Gokhale was aware of the intention of the Government. He made further attempt to draw the attention of the people of India as well as in England towards the condition of education. On 16th March of 1911, Gokhale presented a Bill in the Legislative Council to make a stronger fight against the Government. The Bill, however, was more liberal and humble than the resolutions placed before and the main objective of the bill was to make primary education free and compulsory in a phased manner. The Bill was basically based on the compulsory Education Acts of England of 1870 and 1876.
Important clauses of the Bill may be placed below—
Compulsory primary education should be introduced in those areas where a certain percentage of boys and girls of school-age (6-10) was already receiving instructions. The percentage of attendance should be fixed by the Governor General in Council. It should be left to the discretion of local bodies whether to apply the Act to certain areas under their jurisdiction or not. Local bodies should be given the right to levy educational cess to meet the cost of compulsory primary education. Expenditure on education was to be shared by the local bodies and Provincial Government in the ratio of 1:2. For the introduction of compulsion, the previous sanction of the Viceroy and the Governor respectively were necessary. Compulsory primary education is intended to apply in the first instance only to boys, though later on a local body may extend it to girls also. Guardians whose income is less than Rs. 10/- per month should not be asked to pay any fee for their wards.
- District Primary Education Programme (DPEP)
- The Education Commission (1964-6) OR Kothari Commission
- Secondary Education Commission 1952-1953
- University Education Commission 1948 Or Radhakrishnan Commission
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