Higher Education in India

Secondary Education Commission 1952-1953

Secondary Education Commission 1952-1953


  1. Organisational Pattern of Secondary Education:

 The commission has observed, “We have to bear in mind the principle that secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage, that at the end of this period, the student should be in a position, if he wishes, to enter on the responsibilities of life and take up some useful vocations. The age at which the child is to begin his secondary education and the age up to which it should be continued is therefore, a matter of considerable importance. It is now generally recognized that the period of secondary education covers the age-group of about to 17 years. Properly planned education, covering about 7 years should enable the school to give a thorough training in the courses of study taken by the student and also help him/her to attain a reasonable degree of maturity in knowledge, understanding and judgement which would stand him/her I rood stead in life.”

 Therefore, the commission recommended the following new educational structure for secondary education after 4 or 5 years of primary or Junior Basic Education:

(i) A middle or Junior Secondary or Senior Basic stage which should cover a period of 3 years;

 (ii) A Higher Secondary stage which should cover a period of four years.

  1. Abolition of Intermediate Classes:

 The commission recommended for abolition of intermediate classes. The senior intermediate class (XIIth class) should be combined with the degree class and the junior intermediate class (XIth class) with the high school class.

  1. Diversification of Courses:

 For diversification of courses, multi-purpose schools should be established as agricultural schools, technical schools, commercial schools etc., to enable the students to acquire education according to their interests, aims and diverse abilities.

  1. Stress on Agricultural Education in Rural Schools:

Special facilities should be provided for agricultural education in rural schools. Horticulture and Animal Husbandry as allied subjects of the agriculture should also be taught.

  1. Technical Education:

 (i) Technical schools should be set up in large numbers either separately or as part multi-purpose school and these schools should be located near industries and should function in close co-operation with the industry concerned.

 (ii) Suitable legislation should be passed making it compulsory for the industry to provide facilities to students for particular apprenticeship training.

(iii) Industrial Education Cess should be levied and the” proceeds of this Cess should utilized for the development of technical education.

  1. Other Type of Schools

 (i) Public schools should continue to exist for sometime say for about five years. During this time, organization of these public schools should be in consonance with the general pattern of education.

 (ii) A number of residential schools should be established more particularly in certain rural areas to provide greater opportunities for teacher–pupil contact and for development recreational and extra-curricular activities.

 (iii) A large number of schools should be established to meet the needs of handicapped children.

  1. Education of Girls:

 The commission did not like having a different type of  education for girls. But it recommended for the study of Home Science in all girls’ schools. State Govt. should make effort to open girl schools wherever there is demand for them.

  1. Study of Languages:

 (i) Three languages should be taught in the schools. The medium of instruction at the secondary stage should be either the mother tongue or the regional language.

 (ii) At the middle school stage, every student must be taught at least two languages. Hind and English should be taught after the junior basic stage of education on the condition that no two languages should be introduced in the same year. At the high school a higher secondary stage, the student must be taught at least two languages, one of which being the mother tongue or the regional language.

 (iii) Hindi should be made a compulsory subject of study in the school course due to the following reasons; Official language of the centre, languages of correspondence, an means of promoting national unity and integrity.

 (iv) English shall be the compulsory subject of study at the secondary stage in all the state due to the following reasons: widely known among the educated, means of national unity, useful in international sphere and harmful effect due to exclusion of English.

  1. The centre should assume certain amount of direct responsibility for the contemplate reorganization of secondary education and give financial aid for the purpose.

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Pankaja Singh

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